Calpain 5 is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), carries dual nuclear localization signals, and is associated with nuclear promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies.

TitleCalpain 5 is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), carries dual nuclear localization signals, and is associated with nuclear promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry
Volume289
Issue28
Pagination19383-94
Date Published2014
ISSN0021-9258
Abstract

Calpain 5 (CAPN5) is a non-classical member of the calpain family. It lacks the EF hand motif characteristic of classical calpains but retains catalytic and Ca(2+) binding domains, and it contains a unique C-terminal domain. TRA-3, an ortholog of CAPN5, has been shown to be involved in necrotic cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. CAPN5 is expressed throughout the CNS, but its expression relative to other calpains and subcellular distribution has not been investigated previously. Based on relative mRNA levels, Capn5 is the second most highly expressed calpain in the rat CNS, with Capn2 mRNA being the most abundant. Unlike classical calpains, CAPN5 is a non-cytosolic protein localized to the nucleus and extra-nuclear locations. CAPN5 possesses two nuclear localization signals (NLS): an N-terminal monopartite NLS and a unique bipartite NLS closer to the C terminus. The C-terminal NLS contains a SUMO-interacting motif that contributes to nuclear localization, and mutation or deletion of both NLS renders CAPN5 exclusively cytosolic. Dual NLS motifs are common among transcription factors. Interestingly, CAPN5 is found in punctate domains associated with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein within the nucleus. PML nuclear bodies are implicated in transcriptional regulation, cell differentiation, cellular response to stress, viral defense, apoptosis, and cell senescence as well as protein sequestration, modification, and degradation. The roles of nuclear CAPN5 remain to be determined.

URLhttp://www.jbc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=24838245
DOI10.1074/jbc.M114.575159
Short TitleJ Biol Chem
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