Modulation of metabolic and clock gene mRNA rhythms by pineal and retinal circadian oscillators.

TitleModulation of metabolic and clock gene mRNA rhythms by pineal and retinal circadian oscillators.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
JournalGeneral and comparative endocrinology
Volume161
Issue2
Pagination179-92
ISSN0016-6480
Abstract

Avian circadian organization involves interactions between three neural pacemakers: the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), pineal, and retina. Each of these structures is linked within a neuroendocrine loop to influence downstream processes and peripheral oscillations. However, the contribution of each structure to drive or synchronize peripheral oscillators or circadian outputs in avian species is largely unknown. To explore these interactions in the chick, we measured 2-deoxy[(14)C]-glucose (2DG) uptake and mRNA expression of the chick clock genes bmal1, cry1, and per3 in three brain areas and in two peripheral organs in chicks that underwent pinealectomy, enucleation, or sham surgery. We found that 2DG uptake rhythms damp under constant darkness in intact animals, while clock gene mRNA levels continue to cycle, demonstrating that metabolic rhythms are not directly driven by clock gene transcription. Moreover, 2DG rhythms are not phase-locked to rhythms of clock gene mRNA. However, pinealectomy and enucleation had similar disruptive effects on both metabolic and clock gene rhythms, suggesting that both of these oscillators act similarly to reinforce molecular and physiological rhythms in the chicken. Finally, we show that the relative phasing of at least one clock gene, cry1, varies between central and peripheral oscillators in a tissue specific manner. These data point to a complex, differential orchestration of central and peripheral oscillators in the chick, and, importantly, indicate a disconnect between canonical clock gene regulation and circadian control of metabolism.

URLhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-6480(08)00459-0
DOI10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.12.015
Short TitleGen Comp Endocrinol
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