Principal component analysis and the locus of the Fréchet mean in the space of phylogenetic trees.

TitlePrincipal component analysis and the locus of the Fréchet mean in the space of phylogenetic trees.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
JournalBiometrika
Volume104
Issue4
Pagination901-922
ISSN0006-3444
Abstract

Evolutionary relationships are represented by phylogenetic trees, and a phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences typically produces a collection of these trees, one for each gene in the analysis. Analysis of samples of trees is difficult due to the multi-dimensionality of the space of possible trees. In Euclidean spaces, principal component analysis is a popular method of reducing high-dimensional data to a low-dimensional representation that preserves much of the sample's structure. However, the space of all phylogenetic trees on a fixed set of species does not form a Euclidean vector space, and methods adapted to tree space are needed. Previous work introduced the notion of a principal geodesic in this space, analogous to the first principal component. Here we propose a geometric object for tree space similar to the [Formula: see text]th principal component in Euclidean space: the locus of the weighted Fréchet mean of [Formula: see text] vertex trees when the weights vary over the [Formula: see text]-simplex. We establish some basic properties of these objects, in particular showing that they have dimension [Formula: see text], and propose algorithms for projection onto these surfaces and for finding the principal locus associated with a sample of trees. Simulation studies demonstrate that these algorithms perform well, and analyses of two datasets, containing Apicomplexa and African coelacanth genomes respectively, reveal important structure from the second principal components.

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/biomet/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/biomet/asx047
DOI10.1093/biomet/asx047
Short TitleBiometrika
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