Smoking and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in Orofacial Pain.

TitleSmoking and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in Orofacial Pain.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
JournalJournal of dental research
Volume95
Issue10
Pagination1161-8
ISSN0022-0345
Abstract

To explore the impact of interactions between smoking and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pain intensity, psychological distress, and pain-related functioning in patients with orofacial pain, a retrospective review was conducted of data obtained during evaluations of 610 new patients with a temporomandibular disorder who also reported a history of a traumatic event. Pain-related outcomes included measures of pain intensity, psychological distress, and pain-related functioning. Main effects of smoking status and PTSD symptom severity on pain-related outcomes were evaluated with linear regression analyses. Further analyses tested interactions between smoking status and PTSD symptom severity on pain-related outcomes. PTSD symptom severity and smoking predicted worse pain-related outcomes. Interaction analyses between PTSD symptom severity and smoking status revealed that smoking attenuated the impact of PTSD symptom severity on affective distress, although this effect was not found at high levels of PTSD symptom severity. No other significant interactions were found, but the present results identifying smoking as an ineffective coping mechanism and the likely role of inaccurate outcome expectancies support the importance of smoking cessation efforts in patients with orofacial pain. Smoking is a maladaptive mechanism for coping with pain that carries significant health- and pain-related risks while failing to fulfill smokers' expectations of affect regulation, particularly among persons with orofacial pain who also have high levels of PTSD symptom severity. Addressing smoking cessation is a critical component of comprehensive treatment. Further research is needed to develop more effective ways to help patients with pain and/or PTSD to replace smoking with more effective coping strategies.

URLhttp://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022034516661774?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed
DOI10.1177/0022034516661774
Short TitleJ Dent Res
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